Domain hijacking is a less frequently discussed but no less harmful attack on a company's or individual's Web presence. To establish a website, a domain name ("Companyabc.com") and a Web server (hosting service) must be procured. When a domain is hijacked, the attacker takes control of the domain registrar, a company that has been accredited by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) or a national country code top-level domain (TLD) account, to manipulate communication between the domain name and Web server. In effect, the attacker is interrupting the communication and redirecting traffic from one domain name server to another, using the new domain server for his/her own purposes. Once under new control, the criminal(s) can use the replicated name server (associated with the public-facing website) to send traffic to a new IP address and defraud visitors, interrupt private communications between the server and user, access visitors' account information (steal passwords/credentials), hold a domain hostage from the rightful owner, deface the website, interrupt service, serve up malware, or perpetrate pharming or phishing attacks. It is often extremely difficult to distinguish between the legitimate website and the coopted website.